This book provides an updated and restructured introduction to assessment practice, theory and policies as they apply to school- and teacher-based assessment in New Zealand. The text is intended for use in introductory courses in educational assessment at both graduate and undergraduate levels. It is also useful for in-service teachers or professional developers. It aims to help teachers create, administer, interpret and report in a valid manner. The contents of this book have been based on the authors' experiences and research in developing educational assessments for use in New Zealand primary and secondary school settings in both the English and Maori languages. The text provides information on: how to create worthwhile assessments, including: multiple-choice questions and objectively scored tasks, rubrics to judge performances, portfolios and products and peer and self-assessment; how to evaluate the validity and reliability of assessments; how to give feedback and report assessment results; the qualification and evaluation systems of New Zealand; issues around using assessments in culturally diverse settings; statistical models underlying test scores.